Let’s do something simple today, something rational. We all know what a circle is, and most should know that there are points on the unit circle with rational coordinates, like (3/5, 4/5). This is because of the birational map called stereographic projection, known since antiquity:
Take a point t on the real axis, connect it to the north pole (0,1) on the unit circle with a straight line, and find the second intersection of that line with the circle. This is a rational expression in t. So when t is rational, you get a point on the circle with rational coordinates. This is, of course, also a quick way to get (all) Pythagorean triples. But today we are going elsewhere. Now that we have many points with rational coordinates on a circle, we can make rational polygons, like the one below.
This 9-gon is not only rational, but super-rational in the sense that all its edge lengths are rational numbers. Try it out. Even better: All the diagonals are rational as well. Is this a miracle? Are there others? No and yes, of course. Let’s get started:
Using rational versions of the sine and cosine functions, we can write down rational rotation matrices. They will (for rational t) rotate any point with rational coordinates on a unit circle to another point with rational coordinates. What we are interested in are superrational rotations: Those that rotate a point to any other point. The example above suggests that there are many of those.
I will give the answer next time. For the moment, only a hint: The superrational rotations form a subgroup of the group of rotations. Which is it?